wyoming school integrated pest management (IPM) for filth flies
Wyoming School Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Filth Flies
J.F. Connett, School IPM Specialist, UW Extension, Entomology-Department of Ecosystem Science and Management
A.V. Latchininsky, Professor, Extension Entomologist, Pest Population Biology, Ecology and Management, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management
S.P. Schell, Associate Research Scientist, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management
Issued in furtherance of extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Glen Whipple, director, University of Wyoming Extension, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071.
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Editor: Steven L. Miller, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Office of Communications and Technology.
Graphic Designer: Tanya Engel, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Office of Communications and Technology.
This publication is based upon work supported by USDA-NIFA under Award No. 2014-70006-22555 and through a cooperative grant from the Wyoming Department of Agriculture.
Wyoming School Integrated Pest Management (IPM) For Filth Flies
PROBLEMS CAUSED BY FILTH FLIES
Flies that invade cafeterias and kitchens and other facilities are not only a nuisance, they also present a health hazard because they can transfer disease-causing organisms from filth to food preparation surfaces.
PEST IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGY
House flies are strong fliers and one of the most common filth flies originating in garbage, manure, and vegetable waste and then (may infest) buildings.
House flies: Musca domestica are about 5/16-inch long. Their thorax is gray, with dark lines on the back. House fly larvae (maggots) are up to 1/2-inch long, white and legless, with a worm-like, tapering body to a point at the head.
Brown pupae upper left; white eggs - top center; adult flies, larvae lower left in photo.
House life cycle image courtesy, Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series
Image courtesy of Muhammad Mahdi Karim ()
Image courtesy of Saleem Hameed ()
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The pupae are reddish brown, about 3/8-inch long and characterized by a hard, brown shell. Larvae and pupae are found in garbage and feces.
Flesh flies in the family Sarcophagidae: adults generally have three black stripes on a gray thorax and black bristles on their abdomen (never metallic).
Blow-flies, carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles in the family Calliphoridae: commonly shiny with metallic coloring, often with blue, green, or black thoraces and abdomens.
Garbage and waste are places where filth fly larvae can develop and are often called “breeding sites.” Flies can detect the odor of breeding sites over long distances. To digest solid foods, adult house flies liquefy food by regurgitating digestive fluids on the food. House flies have sponge-like mouthparts to suck up the liquefied food. They can transfer disease-causing organisms to drinks, food, and food preparation surfaces. They also defecate on the food during feeding.
To adequately manage these tough pests, good sanitation practices, removal of the breeding sites, and exclusion from buildings with window screens should be implemented. Due to filth flies high reproductive rate (over 100 eggs per female), they can easily develop resistance to some commonly used pesticides. Insecticide resistance is the ability of an insect population to withstand exposure to insecticides, and this is acquired by breeding among insects that have survived previous exposures to an insecticide that did not kill the whole population. The surviving insects are resistant either because biochemical mechanisms enable them to quickly break down the insecticide or behavioral adaptations enable them to avoid the insecticide.
Pesticide applications should be used only as the last resort, depending on the situation, and as instructed in the product label.
Image courtesy, Tom Murray
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KEY COMPONENTS OF IPM IN SCHOOLS
There are 11 components of IPM in schools. Six are cyclic action steps that occur continuously
in order. Following these steps continually makes pest control straightforward and effective.
Step 1: Pest Identification
Step 2: Prevention
Step 3: Monitoring
Step 4: Analyze and Choose Options
Step 5: Implementation/Action
Step 6: Evaluating
FLY PREVENTION STRATEGIES
PREVENTION is the first line of defense and the most effective fly control action. Fly prevention includes exclusion and sanitation. Keeping indoor and outdoor areas clean is essential.
TRASH CANS and DUMPSTERS (ELIMINATING FLY ATTRACTION and BREEDING SITES)
Keep garbage dumpsters at least 75 feet away from all kitchen doorways and away from the buildings. Odors from trash thrown in dumpsters can attract thousands of flies from the surrounding area. Store garbage in sealed plastic bags within dumpsters with tight-fitting lids where feasible. Use trash can liners that seal with ties to exclude food and liquids from collecting in trash cans as well as reducing odors. Trash liners used for waste disposal should be thick enough to avoid tearing or puncturing by insects such as yellowjacket wasps.
Trash cans and dumpsters need to be cleaned and emptied frequently to eliminate odors that attract flies. Dumpsters can be rotated with fresh dumpsters and steam cleaned if they become filthy. If there is so much trash the lid cannot close, replace with a bigger container or schedule more frequent pickups.
To avoid attracting flies into a school building, place dumpsters and recycling containers upwind from the outside doors of the school, particularly for the doors to the kitchen or cafeteria. When dumpsters are downwind, flies are attracted to the waste odors and then find the odor trails the breeze blows down from the doorways. Flies can follow these odor trails and find their way into the building.
EXCLUSION (KEEPING FLIES OUT OF THE BUILDING)
Install screens over windows and vent holes to prevent flies from entering buildings. Weather-stripping or silicone caulk can be used to ensure a tight fit around windows and pipes and to seal cracks and holes.
Screen doors should be fitted with springs or automatic devices that close the screen door firmly after opening. External doors that cannot be screened should be fitted with automatic closing devices to keep them closed when not in use. Door sweeps and weather stripping that make full contact also keep insects from entering buildings.
Food should be covered as much as possible at picnics to prevent contamination.
The cleaner the area the less likely there will be fly problems.
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ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS TO PREVENT FLIES
Maps help record and visualize where flies have been found and document chronic or seasonal fly activity areas. Pest sightings and problem areas can also be highlighted on maps.
Recordkeeping can be an essential part of integrated pest management as it helps establish a history of pest trends and problem areas as well as track which activities have worked best to control pests and anticipate seasonal pest problems. IPM records allow for more informed decision making in managing school pest problems in and around buildings. Knowing where, when, and what pests have been seen on facility grounds can focus weed control efforts and be helpful to professional pest control operators. Such documentation is critical in an IPM program, as treatment is based on monitoring and other information.
IPM records document proper pesticide use and can save money. The more information there is on record, the more useful the records will be. Records are best kept on a standard form to ensure necessary data is logged every time. The Pest Control Application Form includes the various types of information that may be recorded for each situation.
Since the data sheets are inclusive, not all items need recorded each time. For example, if no products are used when performing a certain action, entries relating to products are left blank. On every report, there should be a space for the applicator to make comments regarding the action taken including any unusual occurrences that could have an impact on results. Fill out the monitoring
forms and control activity forms in the IPM logbook at the time the monitoring and/or control activity is conducted. Records can also be useful in evaluating the success of pest management strategies.
Records can be maintained in an IPM logbook and may include:
Pest control action/application form
Records are not only required for pesticide applications but help document preventive measures and how well various actions or products work. These records can serve in forecasting when a problem may appear or when an outbreak may occur and can help the pest manager evaluate the success of the IPM program.
Maps of building and grounds
Maps help specify problem areas, show weed distribution, explain the situation to others, and track changes.
Material Safety Data Sheets and product labels
While Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and product labels could be included in the IPM logbook, they need to be kept in a separate record in an area accessible to product handlers.
More than three house flies in a kitchen area would indicate some prevention practices may need improvement.
Pinpointing any source of attractive odors or breeding sites is important. If there is a question regarding whether the flies are actually filth flies, specimens can be taken or sent to a county extension educator who should be able to assist in identification. If the extension educator cannot identify the specimen, they will be able to refer you to an extension entomologist specialist at the University of Wyoming who can identify pest insects. To collect specimens inside, gather dead specimens from windowsills and light fixtures. Individual flies captured for identification purposes should be held in a small container with tissue to preserve key identifying characters.
Inspection practices should include ensuring the prevention practices are being achieved and maintained.
ANALYZE AND CHOOSE OPTIONS
While prevention is the most effective management strategy for filth flies in and around facilities, a fly swatter works well for a few adult flies. Fly traps can be used to reduce adult fly populations, capture specimens for identification, and monitor the effectiveness of control programs. Fly traps are not toxic and are more selective than using insecticide. Do not place flypaper or sticky strips above or near food preparation areas.
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Advanced notification of pest control practices can play an important role in an IPM program. Keeping occupants informed can encourage assistance in keeping the area clean and keeping exterior doors closed. Communication with teachers and staff regarding pest control can lead to greater effectiveness.
Preventative tactics are the primary effective fly control actions. While pesticides are usually not the best means of managing filth fly problems, sometimes chemical control can be a valuable component of an IPM program. Always read and follow the entire pesticide label. Pyrethrin aerosols provide a quick-kill insecticide, reducing populations of flying insects for short-term results. Often this type of control provides temporary relief but cannot be relied upon to eliminate the problem.
The last, yet integral, step in IPM is to evaluate and record how well the method or actions worked.
Evaluation is built into on-going monitoring and recording on the pest control data sheet.
Make notes regarding the following questions:
Documentation of the results of monitoring, control methods, and how well they worked is an essential component of IPM so one doesn’t have to relearn how to deal with the same problems over and over. The evaluation also shows where there is need for improvement and helps fine-tune future actions.
Inform students, teachers, and staff members of the importance of placing garbage inside proper containers. Garbage should not be left lying on the ground. Keeping windows screened and doors closed should be stressed.
MORE DETAILED FLY INFORMATION
Bugs Rule!: An Introduction to the World of Insects, 1st Edition, 480 pp, 2013, by Whitney Cranshaw and Richard Redak (Authors), Publisher: Princeton University Press, ISBN13: 978-0691124957
PCT Technician’s Handbook, 4th Edition, 340 pp, by Richard Kramer and Joshua Kramer (Author), Jeff Fenner and Lisa Lupo (Editor) Publisher: GIE Inc., ISBN-10: 1883751306
Household Insects of the Rocky Mountain States, 96 pp, 1984, by W.S. Cranshaw, Colorado State University Extension, Bulletin 557A, 8 1/2 x 11 paperbound
For further information regarding this notice, please contact the school IPM coordinator:
Phone number: __________________________________
The following pesticides will be used at [insert name of school]: _________________________________________
The Office of Pesticide Programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency has stated: “Where possible, persons who potentially are sensitive, such as pregnant women, infants, and children, should avoid any unnecessary pesticide exposure.”
Location of the pesticide application: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Reason for the pesticide application: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
If an indoor application the date and time it is planned:
DATE ___________________________ TIME ___________________________
In the case of an outdoor application, three dates must be listed, in chronological order, on which the outdoor application may take place if the preceding date is canceled.
DATE _______________________ DATE _______________________ DATE _______________________
Description of the possible adverse effects of the pesticides as per the Material Safety Data Sheets for the pesticides to be used, if available:
Pesticide(s) product-label instructions and precautions related to public safety:
Not less than twelve (12) hours before application of pesticides within school buildings, signs shall be posted at main entrances to school buildings and at the entrances to the specific application area within buildings. If pesticide application is made outdoors to any area adjacent to a school building or on property used by the district for student activities or playgrounds, signs shall be posted immediately adjacent to the treated area and at the entrance to the district property. The signs shall remain posted for seventy-two (72) hours.
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This SIGN template (Word document) is available on the website “Wyoming School IPM”)
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This NOTIFICATION template (Word document) is available on the website “Wyoming School IPM”
This data sheet template (Word template) is available on the website “Wyoming School IPM”